Bluecoat (Europe)
Bluecoat (USA)
Biographies
Search Biographies
>Public Reports<
Protected Reports
Bluecoat charter & rules
Contact Administrators


Reports

[Acronyms]
[Reports howto]
Protected Reports

Maintained by (If you have difficulties downloading a file I can mail it to you):
Eric Hoffman <hof_at_bluecoat.org>

Most reports submitted by:
Mark E. Ingram <markt_at_mickey.mo-net.com>

Note the anti-spam twist: In the addresses above replace _at_ with @

Reports, sorted by author

  • Government/Industry Charting Forum Meeting (ACF 97-1) , April 7-8, 1997 Acrobat PDF [379Kb]

  • Government/Industry Charting Forum Meeting (ACF 97-01) , Silver Spring, MD., April 7-10, 1997 Acrobat PDF [175Kb]

  • Unofficial Draft AIM GPS Input , Dec. 20, 1996 Acrobat PDF [87Kb]

  • Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority; DRAFT: Guidelines for the consideration and design of: Engine Out SID (EOSID) and Engine Out Missed Approach Procedures, DRAFT CAAP 235-4(0) [PDF 472KB]

  • Bergner, Steve ; Controlled Flight into Terrain, Part II : FMS/GPS Nonprecision Approach Operations -- The Distance To Go , Air Line Pilot Magazine, Oct. 1996. Acrobat PDF [188Kb]

  • Bergner, Steve; Slide Presentation at NBAA International Operators' Conference , March, 1997 Acrobat PDF [170Kb]

  • Bickford, Pete; Usability Testing: In Which Doc Reveals the Benefits and the True Cost of Usability Testing , May, 1997 Acrobat PDF [92Kb]

  • Bregman, Howard; Dorman, Gerald; DiLeo, John; DiVito, Robert; Iwata, Amy; MacWilliams, Kara; Safety Benefits of Precision vs. Non Precision Approaches , The MITRE Corporation, Sep. 22, 1997. Acrobat PDF [68Kb]

  • Bulfer, Bill ; Changes to Navaid Identification in Database , Sep. 11, 1996.

  • Coyle, Shawn; Aircraft On-Board Navigation Data Integrity - A Serious Problem , May 6, 1997 Acrobat PDF [454Kb]

  • Daly, Kieran; Air Navigation International: UK CAA's GPS study , volume 2, number 23, 20 Nov. 1996. Acrobat PDF (nicest) [412Kb] or PDF version of MS-Word document [147Kb] or MS-Word document [37Kb]

  • Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.; Human Factors of Flight-Deck Checklists: The Normal Checklist , NASA CR 177549, May 1990. Acrobat PDF [1245Kb]

  • Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.; On the Design of Flight-Deck Procedures , NASA CR 177642, June 1994. Acrobat PDF [796Kb]

  • Degani, Asaf; On the Typography of Flight-Deck Documentation , December 1992 Acrobat PDF [1600Kb]

  • English, Dave ; "T" Approach and Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) annotated diagram , Sep. 4, 1996.

  • Enias, James H.; Criteria to Approve VNAV Approach Operations for Air Carrier Operators --- (VERSION 2 of Terminal Instrument Procedures to Implement VNAV for Air Carrier Operators), February 24, 1997 Acrobat PDF [187Kb] or Draft v1 -- Aug. 15, 1996, Acrobat PDF [38Kb]

  • FAA; Takeoff safety training aid (TOSTA) , Federal Aviation Administration, BP93-780013, 1993. Sections 1-3 [3.9Mb], Section 4 [3.5Mb], Appendix 3 [3.4Mb], Appendix 4 [3.4Mb].

  • FAA: McGrath, John K.; TSO-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) , 1996 Acrobat PDF [437Kb]

  • FAA ; AC 90-94 - Guidelines for Using Global Positioning System Equipment for IFR En Route and Terminal Operations and for Nonprecision Instrument Approaches in the U.S. National Airspace System , Dec 14, 1994. FAA-AC-90-94 text file [76Kb]

  • FAA: Accardi, Thomas C.; White, William J.; 8260.38A CHG 1 - Civil Utilization of Global Positioning System (GPS) 8260.38A CHG 1 , October 9, 1996 Acrobat PDF [622Kb]

  • FAA ; 8260.GPSDEP - Civil Utilization of Global Positioning System (GPS), Subject : Departure Procedures , Aug. 28, 1996. Acrobat PDF [472Kb]

  • FAA: White, William J.; 8260.RNAVDEP - Civil Utilization of Area Navigation (RNAV) , April 30, 1997 Acrobat PDF [533Kb]

  • FAA 8260.TAA - Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) Design Criteria (Draft) , July, 1997 Acrobat PDF [402Kb]

  • FAA - Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI): Wreggit, Steven S.; Marsh, Delbert K.; Cockpit Integration of GPS: Initial Assessment -- Menu Formats and Procedures , August, 1996 Acrobat PDF [268Kb]

  • FAA Human Factors Team; The Interfaces Between Flightcrews and Modern Flight Deck Systems , June 18, 1996. Mirrored from http://www.faa.gov/avr/afs/interfac.pdf Acrobat PDF [924Kb]

  • FedEx; MD11 Normal Checklist , June, 1997 Acrobat PDF [109Kb]

  • Fuchs, Michael (submitted by); TCAS graphic showing the technical data on TCAS range and time limits , 1997 gif file [27Kb]

  • Foster, Neil; RNP-ANP (FSBTI) , 2001 Powerpoint file [59Kb] (Powerpoint file viewer)

  • Gregory, James W. ; CFIT-Procedure Design Considerations, Use of VNAV on Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures , Sep. 10, 1996. Read it online or Acrobat PDF [202Kb]

  • Gregory, James W. ; Annex 4, Aeronautical Chart Manual and PANS-OPS Amendments to Support Baro-VNAV Procedures , June 5, 2000. Acrobat PDF [332Kb]

  • Gregory, James W. ; Non-Precision Instrument Approach Procedures Design Philosophy , June 5, 2000. Acrobat PDF [1256Kb]

  • Gwinn, Dave; Radar Tilt Management , June, 1999.

  • Hammett, Bill ; Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Instrument Procedures Subgroup Meeting 96-2 , Washington, DC, October 7-8, 1996 Acrobat PDF [47Kb]

  • Helfrick, Albert ; Avionics & Portable Electronics : Trouble in the Air? , Avionics News Magazine, Sep. 1996. Acrobat PDF [26Kb]

  • Heron, Ruth M.; Krolak, Waldemar; Coyle, Shawn; A Human Factors Approach to Use of GPS Receivers , 1997 Acrobat PDF [279Kb]

  • ICAO; Amendment of Annex 6, Parts I, II, and III with respect to the carriage of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) and pressure-altitude reporting transponders , Aug. 8, 1997 Acrobat PDF [60Kb]

  • Ingram, Mark ; Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Air Traffic System Plan , Sep. 17, 1996. Acrobat PDF [63Kb]

  • Ingram, Mark ; "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Concepts illustrated for fictional "Wink, WI, Mason Regional Airport" , Sep. 4, 1996. Acrobat PDF [656Kb]

  • Ingram, Mark ; "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Concepts illustrated for Monett Muni (M58) , Aug. 7, 1996. Acrobat PDF [326Kb]

  • JAA & Eurocontrol; Summary and Conclusions of the RNAV Symposium , 11-12 March, 1997 Acrobat PDF [128Kb]

  • Ladkin, Peter B.; Electromagnetic Interference with Aircraft Systems: Why Worry? , July 13, 1997 Acrobat PDF [51Kb]

  • Lawson-Smith, Gary; GNSS Spectrum Issues: Protection of Radionavigation Band 1559-1610 MHz , June 25, 1997 Acrobat PDF [31Kb]

  • Lewison, George ; Honeywell's Differential GPS Satellite Landing System , Avionics News Magazine, Sep. 1996. Acrobat PDF [30Kb]

  • Long, Howard A.; Changes to the Present ARINC 424 Rules on Approach Coding , August 1997 Acrobat PDF [11Kb]

  • Long, Howard, A.; The Chilling Result of Cold Temperatures on Barometric Altimeters , March 19, 1998 Acrobat PDF [11Kb]

  • Marinelli, Mario ; Multimedia Systems and Cognitive Aspects in the Training of Airline Pilots , 1994. Acrobat PDF [383Kb] or gzip PostScript [116Kb]

  • FAA: McGrath, John K.; TSO-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) , 1996 Acrobat PDF [437Kb]

  • Moore, Michael ; Differential GPS Demonstration Approach at KTEB , December 29, 1996 Acrobat PDF [134Kb]

  • NTSB ; Aircraft Accident Report; Uncontained Engine Failure/Fire; Valujet Airlines Flight 597; Douglas DC-9-32, N908VJ; Atlanta Georgia , 1996.

  • NTSB: Hall, Jame E.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia; John J.; Aircraft Accident Report: Uncontained Engine Failure, Delta Air Lines Flight 1288, McDonnell Douglas MD-88, N927DA, Pensacola, Florida, July 6, 1996 , Jan. 13, 1998 Acrobat PDF [61Kb]

  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.;
    Excerpts from the US NTSB & French BEA report :
    NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Aircraft Accident Report, In-Flight Icing Encounter And Loss of Control, Simmons Airlines, d.b.a. American Eagle Flight 4184, Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) Model 72-212, N4O1AM, Roselawn, Indiana, October 31, 1994 , July 9, 1996 Acrobat PDF [122Kb]

  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; In-Flight Loss of Propeller Blade, Forced Landing, and Collision with Terrain, Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Inc., Flight 529, Embraer EMB-120RT, N256AS, Carrollton, Georgia, August 21, 1995 , November 26, 1996 Acrobat PDF [30Kb]

  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Runway departure during attempted takeoff, Tower Air Flight 41, Boeing 747-136, N605FF, JFK, NY, December 20, 1995 , December 2, 1996 Acrobat PDF [32Kb]

  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Ground Spoiler Activation in Flight/Hard Landing, Valujet Airlines Flight 558, Douglas DC-9-32, N922VV, Nashville, Tennessee, January 7, 1996 , December 11, 1996 Acrobat PDF [27Kb]

  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Wheels-Up Landing, Continental Airlines Flight 1943, Douglas DC-9 N10556, Houston, Texas, February 19, 1996 , February 11, 1997 Acrobat PDF [28Kb]

  • NTSB; Aircraft Accident Report Summary:
    Descent Below Visual Glidepath and Collision with Terrain, Delta Airlines Flight 554, McDonnell Douglas MD-88, N914DL, LaGuardia Airport, New York, October 19, 1996
    , 1997
    Acrobat PDF [33Kb]

  • Reynolds, Brian; How Changes Are Actually Handled , Feb. 1996.

  • Rogers, Ron; Flight Test Results of the Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance Maneuver in Fly-by-Wire (FBW) Transports , March 1, 1999. Acrobat PDF [241Kb]

  • Rogers, Ron; Pilot Authority and Aircraft Protections , March 1, 1999. Acrobat PDF [694Kb]

  • Roscoe, S. N.; Measurement of Tranfer of Training , Chapter 16 in S. N. Roscoe. Aviation Psychology. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1980. Acrobat PDF [1185Kb]

  • Roturier, BenoÓt; Calvet, Michel; Analysis of Baro VNAV safety issues, Proc. Navigation Systems Panel (NSP) meeting, Working Group 1&2, Brussels, BE, 8-19 May, 2006. [PDF 199KB]

  • Sharkey, Sarah; Johannessen, Rolf; Reliability Performance in GPS Receivers and the Nature of their Failures: Planning to Live with Realistic Failure Rates in Satellite Navigation System Receivers , November 5, 1996 Acrobat PDF [44Kb]
    See also Daly, Kieran; Air Navigation International: UK CAA's GPS study

  • Sherman, Paul J.; Aircrews' Evaluations of Flight Deck Automation Training and Use: Measuring and Ameliorating Threats to Safety , The University of Texas Aerospace Crew Research Project, Technical Report 97-2, July 31, 1997 Acrobat PDF [430Kb]

  • Skaves, Peter; Report on the Boeing 757 / 767 Future Air Navigation System (FANS) 1 Pegasus Navigation Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) , July 28, 1997 Acrobat PDF [195Kb]

  • Slatter, Richard; ICAO Obstacle Clearance Panel (OCP) action on Air Navigation Commission (ANC) instructions , Fax sent on April 3, 1997 Acrobat PDF [34Kb]

  • Terpstra, James; The Harmonization of Information for Pilots on Charts and Avionics , May 2001 Acrobat PDF [511Kb]

  • Transport Canada; Report of the RNAV Task Force FMS SID/STAR Working Group , January 1997 Acrobat PDF [538Kb]

  • Transport Canada; Order form for "Sharing the Skies: Aviation industry guide to the management of wildlife hazards." , May 2001 Acrobat PDF [78Kb]

  • Ververs, Patricia May; Understanding a Pilot's Tasks , July, 1997 Acrobat PDF [33Kb]

  • Young, Tom; A Tool for CFIT Prevention , Air Line Pilot Magazine, Sep. 1996. Acrobat PDF [101Kb]

  • Young, Tom; Comstock, Kevin; Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) Charting and Instrument Procedures (CHIPs) position papers , June 27, 1997 Acrobat PDF [168Kb]

  • Zambra, Pedro; Principales Volcanes en la Republica Mexicana - Mexican Volcanoes , October 20, 1997


    Abstracts

    Government/Industry Charting Forum Meeting (ACF 97-1) , April 7-8, 1997 Acrobat PDF [379Kb]
    19 pages
    The following items are included:
    a. Meeting minutes [from April 7-8, 1997]
    b. Attendance listing
    c. Status Document, 92-02-104, Precipitous Terrain
    d. Status Document, 92-02-105, Circling Areas
    e. Status Document, 95-01-143, Maximum Airspeed
    f. 97-01-178, ALPA Draft Letter on LDIN Lights
    g. OPI [Open Agenda Items] Listing

    Status Document 92-02-105, "Circling Maneuvers at Airports With High Heights Above Airports," specifically requests industry input on developing a model of "likely techniques that a pilot would use to execute a circling maneuver" in the following cases:
    1. Airports with high elevations
    2. Airports with very high surrounding terrain
    3. Circling at night with high terrain
    4. Inadequate area to maneuver within the circling area to a safe descent to the runway from high terrain clearance circling MDA.

    The document says: "As previously requested, inputs from industry on circling techniques for various circling maneuvers would aid in the completion of the model. The simplest form of input is probably diagrams illustrating the techniques for flying circling from the opposite end of the runway and 90 to the runway to include the following: turn points, bank angles, timing techniques, drift correction, length of straight segment on final, offset from the runway (distance and the course change/timing used to achieve it), how to determine the start of the turn to final (timing, visual angle, etc.), configuration/ configuration change points, airspeeds and rate of change (Knots per second), earliest point descent to the runway should start."



    Government/Industry Charting Forum Meeting (ACF 97-01) , Silver Spring, MD., April 7-10, 1997 Acrobat PDF [175Kb]
    13 pages

    Table of Contents:
    1. Opening Remarks
    2. Prohibited Area P-56 Charting
    3. SID/STAR Clarity
    4. ICAO AIS/MAP Regional Meeting
    5. Formation of the Charts, Database and Avionics Harmonization Committee
    6. Area Navigation (RNAV) IFR Enroute Navigation Charts
    7. Transfer of NOS/AC&C to the FAA
    8. Charting Symbol for NRP SID and STAR Transitions (97-01-085)
    9. Engine Out Working Group (92-01-003, 93-01-027)
    10. IACC Task Group 31 IAP Chart Issues (92-01-011, 92-01-015, 92-01-030, ICAO identifiers on GPS approaches, magnetic versus true orientation, division of TPPs)
    11. VFR Charting Recommendations
    12. Release of Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED)(93-01-028)
    13. SMGCS Charts and Standard Taxi Routes (93-01-024, 93-01-029)
    14. IAP Reformat (92-01-006, 92-01-012, 92-01-013, 92-01-014, 94-01-039, 95- 01-065)
    15. Obstruction Data to Support Take-off Performance Calculation (92-01-003)
    16. Depicting Communication Frequencies on IAP Charts (92-01-006)
    17. Use of Color on IAPs (92-01-011)
    18. Warning and Caution Notes on IAPs (92-01-012)
    Print Size and Readability of IAPs (92-01-013)
    Use of Icons on IAPs (92-01-014)
    19. Obstacle and Terrain Contour Depiction on IAPs (92-01-015)
    20. Obstruction Data in Digital Form (93-01-027)
    21. Terrain Database/Release of DTED (93-01-028)
    22. GPS Overlay and GPS Charting (93-01-030)
    23. Changes to the Terminal Procedures (94-01-039)
    24. Parachute Jumping Areas on VFR Charts (94-01-040)
    Class C Airspace on VFR Charts (94-01-041)
    Communication Frequencies on VFR Charts (94-01-042)
    Class B Airspace on VFR Charts (94-01-043)
    25. Charting Permanent Laser Sites (94-02-053)
    26. Military Aviation Technology Initiative (95-01-057)
    27. Visibility of ATC Frequencies on Sectional Charts (95-01-058)
    28. Removal of Mountain Pass Symbology (95-01-061)
    29. Equipment Required on Intermediate Segments (95-01-065)
    30. Unnamed Fixes on Enroute Charts (95-01-066)
    31. Redundant Verbiage on SIDs/STARs (95-02-068)
    32. Boundary of VFR Terminal Chart on Sectional Charts (95-02-070)
    Airspace Change Dates on Sectional Charts (95-02-071)
    33. Inoperative Components Table (95-02-075)
    34. Adding GPS Waypoints to Charts (96-02-078)
    35. Glide Slope Barb Length on Profile (96-02-079)
    36. Location of STARS in the TPPs (96-02-081)
    37. Procedure Change Flag on IAPs (96-02-083)
    38. RNAV Approach Plates (96-02-084)
    39. Communication Frequencies and SATCOM Voice Information on Oceanic Enroute Charts (97-01-086)
    40. "J Date" and "Amdt" Number Depicted on IAPs (97-01-087)
    41. No Military Landing Rights Available (97-01-088)
    42. Marking/Symbology for the Non-Towered Airports with Non-Standard Traffic Patterns (97-01-089)
    43. Depiction of GPS Database Points on IAPs (97-01-91)
    44. VFR Charting of Cellular Towers (97-01-092)
    45. Charted Fixes with No Apparent Purpose on SIAPs (97-01-093)
    46. Closing Comments


    Bergner, Steve ; Controlled Flight into Terrain, Part II : FMS/GPS Nonprecision Approach Operations - The Distance To Go , Oct. 1996. Acrobat PDF [188Kb]

    Second in a series on Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT), and discusses FMS/GPS nonprecision approach operations. The author describes potentially confusing aspects of GPS approaches related to inconsistent designs between cockpit displays, printed approach charts, and electronic databases. The article is used by permission of _Air Line Pilot_ Magazine and Steve Bergner.


    Bergner, Steve; Slide Presentation at NBAA International Operators' Conference , March, 1997 Acrobat PDF [170Kb]

    These PowerPoint slides were part of a presentation to about 500 pilots and flight department managers who attended the NBAA's International Operators' Conference in March of 1997. Bluecoaters will recognize that several of the slides are based upon papers previously presented by Wally Roberts and Jim Gregory. Perhaps these illustrations will stir some additional discussion or provide some ideas for instructors and check airmen tasked with teaching instrument approaches using FMS databases.


    Bickford, Pete; Usability Testing: In Which Doc Reveals the Benefits— and the True Cost— of Usability Testing , May, 1997 Acrobat PDF [92Kb]

    (2 pages)
    In the end, there is only one judge of how good the human interface is, and that person is the user. By doing usability testing on your product in the development stage, you stand a much better chance of passing muster when your product is "usability tested" in the marketplace.


    Bulfer, Bill ; Changes to Navaid Identification in Database , Sep. 11, 1996.

    Details regarding a fax sent from Jeppesen to their customers describing a change in how Non-Directional Beacons (NDBs) will be loaded in the database.


    Coyle, Shawn; Aircraft On-Board Navigation Data Integrity - A Serious Problem , May 6, 1997 Acrobat PDF [454Kb]

    Prepared by Flight Test Pilot Shawn Coyle, the report's Executive Summary states, "Transport Canada Aircraft Certification Flight Test Branch's experience with a wide variety of FMS and GPS receivers has shown significant problems with the integrity of the data presented to the pilot. FMS procedures do not conform to published procedures, data is missing, potentially misleading or extraneous data is added, and procedures are modified without reference to approved instrument safety criteria. Data is also presented in a different fashion from one manufacturer to the next."

    The report goes on to say that Transport Canada wants "... the information the pilot gets from a database to have a quality control process so that the information the pilot gets is as close to identical to the published data as possible within a statistically safe limit," and proposes measures that can be taken toward achieving full "harmonization" of FMS databases. Example procedures and charts are presented.



    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.; Human Factors of Flight-Deck Checklists: The Normal Checklist , NASA CR 177549, May 1990. Acrobat PDF [1245Kb]

    "Although the aircraft checklist has long been regarded as the foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety, it has escaped the scrutiny of the human factors profession. The improper use, or the non-use, of the normal checklist by flight crews is often cited as the probable cause or at least a contributing factor to aircraft accidents.

    "In this report the authors attempt to analyze the normal checklist, its functions, format, design, length, usage, and the limitations of the humans who must interact with it. The development of the checklist from the certification of a new aircraft to its delivery and use by the customer is discussed.

    "The influence of the government, particularly the FAA Principal Operations Inspector (POI), the manufacturer's philosophy, the airline's 'culture,' and the end user - the pilot, all influence the ultimate design and usage of this device. The effects of airline mergers and acquisitions on checklist usage and design are noted.

    "In addition, the interaction between production pressures ('making schedules'), checklist usage and checklist management are addressed. Finally, the authors provide a list of design guidelines for normal checklists."

    See also Asaf Degani's homepage.
    Asaf Degani wishes to thank Mark Ingram for making this work available to Bluecoat.



    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.; On the Design of Flight-Deck Procedures , NASA CR 177642, June 1994. Acrobat PDF [796Kb]

    From the document's Summary section: "In complex human-machine systems, operations, training, and standardization depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified and mandated by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks performed. The intent [of this report] is to provide guidance to the pilots, to ensure a logical, efficient, safe, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the mission objectives.

    However, in some operations these procedures can become a hodge-podge, with little coherency in terms of consistency and operational logic. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to deviations from procedures by flight crews, as well as difficulty in transition training for pilots moving from one aircraft to another.

    In this report the authors examine the issue of procedure use and design from a broad viewpoint. The authors recommend a process which we call "The Four P's:" philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. We believe that if an organization commits to this process, it can create a set of procedures that are more internally consistent, less confusing, better respected by the flight crews, and that will lead to greater conformity.

    The "Four-P" model, and the guidelines for procedural development in Appendix 1, resulted from cockpit observations, extensive interviews with airline management and pilots, interviews and discussion at one major airframe manufacturer, and an examination of accident and incident reports involving deviation from standard operating procedures (SOPs). Although this report is based on airline operations, we believe that the principles may be applicable to other complex, high-risk systems, such as nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, space flight, law enforcement, military operations, and high-technology medical practice.

    See also Asaf Degani's homepage.
    Asaf Degani wishes to thank Mark Ingram for making this work available to Bluecoat.



    Degani, Asaf; On the Typography of Flight-Deck Documentation , December 1992 Acrobat PDF [1600Kb]

    (40 pages)
    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentation have typographical and graphical deficien- cies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly depen- dent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays.

    The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts "to bridge" the gap between basic research about typogra- phy, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck docu- mentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

    See also Asaf Degani's homepage.
    Asaf Degani wishes to thank Mark Ingram for making this work available to Bluecoat.



    English, Dave ; "T" Approach and Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) annotated diagram , Sep. 4, 1996.

    TAA stands for Terminal Arrival Area, a new instrument approach procedure design that takes advantage of GPS's unique capabilities.


    FAA: McGrath, John K.; TSO-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) , 1996 Acrobat PDF [437Kb]

    There have been forum discussions lately that reference TSO-C129a, "Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)." The complete document is available on the FAA's Web site in MS Word format, and has also been added to the Bluecoat Reports site in Adobe Acrobat PDF format (xxxK). The MS Word document is at: http://www.faa.gov/avr/air/129saved.doc Here is a "Brief Summary of Contents" from http://www.faa.gov/avr/air/129intro.htm: (1) Minimum Performance Standard. This technical standard order (TSO) prescribes the minimum performance standard that airborne supplemental area navigation equipment using the global positioning system (GPS) must meet in order to be identified with the applicable TSO marking. Airborne supplemental area navigation equipment using GPS that are to be so identified and that are manufactured on or after the date of this TSO must meet the minimum performance standard of Section 2, RTCA, Inc. Document No. RTCA/DO-208, 'Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using Global Positioning System (GPS),' dated July 1991. (38 pages)
    Also available MS Word document.


    FAA ; AC 90-94 - Guidelines for Using Global Positioning System Equipment for IFR en Route and Terminal Operations and for Nonprecision Instrument Approaches in the U.S. National Airspace System , Dec 14, 1994. FAA-AC-90-94 text file [76Kb]

    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidance for pilots to use Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment during instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation. It includes operating en route, in the terminal environment, during nonprecision instrument approach procedures in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and in oceanic areas. Emphasis is placed on the GPS approach overlay program. This document is advisory only and not mandatory.


    FAA: Accardi, Thomas C.; White, William J.; 8260.38A CHG 1 - Civil Utilization of Global Positioning System (GPS) 8260.38A CHG 1 , October 9, 1996 Acrobat PDF [622Kb]

    17 pages.
    Key words: GPS, GPS Approaches, Departures and Transitions


    FAA ; 8260.GPSDEP - Civil Utilization of Global Positioning System (GPS), Subject : Departure Procedures , Aug. 28, 1996. Acrobat PDF [472Kb]

    24 pages including :
  • Figure 1: GPS Departures, Minimum Distances from DER [Departure End of Runway] to WP
  • Figure 2: GPS Departure, up to 15-degree Turn
  • Figure 3: GPS Departure, 90-degree Turn Beyond 30 NM from ARP [Airport Reference Point]
  • Figure 4: GPS Departure, 120-degree Turn, Fly-Over Waypoint
  • Figure 5: GPS Departure, 90-degree Turn, Below 10,000' MSL, Fly-Over Waypoint
  • Figure 6: GPS Departure, 30-degree Turn, Fly-Over Waypoint
  • Figure 7: GPS Departure, 30-degree Turn, Fly-By Waypoint
  • Figure 8: GPS Departure, 120-degree Turn, Fly-Over Waypoint, 1 NM from DER
  • Figure 9: GPS Departure, 120-degree Turn, Fly-Over Waypoint, more than 30 NM from ARP
  • Figure 10: GPS Departure, Evaluation of Obstacles
  • Figure 11: GPS Departure, Climb and Hold Departure
  • [Figure XX, added by Mark Ingram]: General Turning Performance (Constant Altitude, Steady Turn) [with thanks to Al St. Germain, of MKC FAA]


  • FAA: White, William J.; 8260.RNAVDEP - Civil Utilization of Area Navigation (RNAV) , April 30, 1997 Acrobat PDF [533Kb]

    35 pages
    To be read in conjunction with 8260.38A, provides criteria for establishing RNAV departures for use by aircraft with slant (/)G equipment and certified for Requ ired Navigation Performance (RNP) 1.0.


    FAA - Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI): Wreggit, Steven S.; Marsh, Delbert K.; Cockpit Integration of GPS: Initial Assessment -- Menu Formats and Procedure s , August, 1996 Acrobat PDF [268Kb]

    (21 pages)
    This report likely will be of interest to anyone involved in the "button-pushing" operations required with GPS and, by extension, FMS units, including designers and pilots. Authors Wreggit and Marsh describe a study in which test subjects were required to perform typical tasks using the buttons and screen of a general aviation portable GPS unit, detailing both the successes and the problems that resulted.

    The authors conclude that there remains a clear need for greater harmonization and integration of the user interfaces of GPS units.



    FAA Human Factors Team; The Interfaces Between Flightcrews and Modern Flight Deck Systems , June 18, 1996. Mirrored from http://www.faa.gov/avr/afs/interfac.pdf Acrobat PDF [924Kb]

    209 pages
    On April 26, 1994, an Airbus A300-600 operated by China Airlines crashed at Nagoya, Japan, killing 264 passengers and flightcrew members. Contributing to the accident were conflicting actions taken by the flightcrew and the airplane's autopilot. The crash provided a stark example of how a breakdown in the flightcrew/automation interface can affect flight safety. Although this particular accident involved an A300-600, other accidents, incidents, and safety indicators demonstrate that this problem is not confined to any one airplane type, airplane manufacturer, operator, or geographical region. This point was tragically demonstrated by the crash of a Boeing 757 operated by American Airlines near Cali, Columbia on December 20, 1995, and a November 12, 1995 incident (very nearly a fatal accident) in which an American Airlines Douglas MD-80 descended below the minimum descent altitude on approach to Bradley International Airport, CT, clipped the tops of trees, and landed short of the runway.

    As a result of the Nagoya accident, as well as other incidents and accidents that appear to highlight difficulties in flightcrews interacting with flight deck automation, the FAA's Transport Airplane Directorate, under the approval of the Director, Aircraft Certification Service, launched a study to evaluate the flightcrew/flight deck automation interfaces of current generation transport category airplanes. This report is the culmination of that study.



    FedEx; MD11 Normal Checklist , June, 1997 Acro bat PDF [109Kb]

  • 1. Charted visual flight procedures
  • 2. Electronic charting/moving maps
  • 3. Continuation of flight inspection
  • 4. Retention of ILS
  • 5. Conversion of MSAs to DH on non-precision approaches
  • 6. Obstacle clearance training
  • 7. Outline for obstacle clearance video
  • 8. Qualifications for non FAA procedures development specialists
  • 9. The use of special approach procedures
  • 10. Instrument departure procedure climb gradients
  • 11. Stabilized constant descent approaches
  • 12. Stabilized descent non precision approaches (non FMS procedures)
  • 13. Letter to Patricia Lane regarding Lack of performance data in cockpit to determine climb gradients


  • Gregory, James W. ; CFIT-Procedure Design Considerations, Use of VNAV on Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures , Sep. 10, 1996. Read i t online or Acrobat PDF [202Kb]

    This paper identifies safety concerns regarding the use of the aircraft modern technology capability of VNAV while flying conventionally designed non-precision approaches. (6 pages)


    Gregory, James W. ; Annex 4, Aeronautical Chart Manual and PANS-OPS Amendments to Support Baro-VNAV Procedures , June 5, 2000. Acrobat PDF [332Kb]

    OCP 12 introduced criteria called RNAV/BAROMETRIC VERTICAL NAVIGATION (BARO-VNAV) as a new Chapter 34 to PANS-OPS Volume II. Within these criteria, paragraph 34.5 detailed the requirements of promulgation of the procedure. This paper proposes to amend paragraph 34.5 to include a vertical deviation chart identifying what vertical path angle the flight crew can expect based upon varying altimeter source temperatures. This paper also proposed appropriate amendments to PANS-OPS Volume I, Volume II, Annex 4 and the Aeronautical Chart Manual to accomodate this deviation chart.


    Gregory, James W. ; Non-Precision Instrument Approach Procedures Design Philosophy , June 5, 2000. Acrobat PDF [1256Kb]

    This paper presents a new concept in developing instrument procedures. As a result of the complete misunderstanding of the development and application of minimum IFR altitudes in instrument procedures, especially non-precision instrument approach procedures, by the aviation industry at large, it is now necessary to rethink the way non-precision approach procedures are developed, presented and flown. This paper suggests a solution to this problem.


    Gwinn, Dave; Radar Tilt Management , June, 1999.
    Pilots who have used both radar and sferics devices (Storm-scopes/Strike Finders) will tell although both are effective at detecting dangerous weather radar has more potential to tell you what's inside that threatening black Cb up ahead. But to truly capitalize on radar's powerful capabilities have to tell it where and how to look and then make sense of the information it displays.


    Hammett, Bill ; Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Instrument Procedures Subgroup Meeting 96-2 , Washington, DC, October 7-8, 1996 Acrobat PDF [47Kb]

    Although the issues dealt with in this series of meetings are definitely of a "nuts and bolts" nature, some of them nonetheless portend veritable "sea changes" in philosophies and procedures (IMO), and thus their review by interested Bluecoat participants is strongly encouraged. General comments can be directed to the entire Bluecoat list.


    Heron, Ruth M.; Krolak, Waldemar; Coyle, Shawn; A Human Factors Approach to Use of GPS Receivers , 1997 Acrobat PDF [279Kb]

    20 pages
    Imagine you are about to pilot an aircraft on a GPS approach into a busy airport surrounded by high mountains. You are being buffeted by high winds, rain, and turbulence.

    Then ATC calls for a different approach and you must re-program. Time is of the essence, but somehow your receiver inputs are getting scrambled and you can't figure out why.

    Finally, as you perform a critical keyboard entry to the GPS receiver, all navigation capability is lost because the unit's operating system crashes with the message, "Contact Factory, Contact Factory, Contact Factory...." (This was a real message, but the particular issue that invoked it has long since been resolved.)

    Thanks to authors Ruth Heron, Waldemar Krolak and Shawn Coyle, this type of human factors problem, and numerous others characteristic of today's GPS receivers, are given attention in a report now available on the Bluecoat Reports Web page. The report sets the stage for understanding how the pilot must cope with these difficulties by showing how operation of a GPS receiver adds another complete information-processing loop to the basic pilot/aircraft closed loop system.

    Problems discussed within this model include those relevant to key operation, load on memory, nonintuitive system logic, nonstandardization across manufactured units, database irregularities, and display properties. Various aircraft accidents and incidents are cited to illustrate ways in which the described difficulties lead to disruption of the pilot's normal information processing and, hence, to potential for loss of situation awareness.


    ICAO; Amendment of Annex 6, Parts I, II, and III with respect to the carriage of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS) and pressure-altitude reporting transponders , Aug. 8, 1997 Acrobat PDF [60Kb]

    10 pages
    Mr. Slatter cautions: "These are proposals circulated for the comments of States and selected international organizations, on the authority of the Air Navigation Commission. The proposals can be amended, during the ICAO process of development of an amendment to an annex, up to the time they are finally adopted by the ICAO Council, which in this case is hoped for in March 1998."


    Ingram, Mark ; Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex Air Traffic System Plan , Sep. 17, 1996. Acrobat PDF [63Kb]

    6 pages document detailing changes which will occur on October 10, 1996 :
  • Additional arrival and departure routes,
  • 4 new airport surveillance radars,
  • 8 new VORTACs,
  • new ILSs and new procedures.
    Related link : Details provided by Wyndemere Inc.


  • Ingram, Mark ; "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Concepts illustrated for fictional "Wink, WI, Mason Regional Airport" , Sep. 4, 1996. Acrobat PDF [656Kb]

    2 charts illustrating the "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Bluecoat thread started by Mark Ingram on July 6, 1996 and continuing in August.
    The two different SIAP's to the fictional "Wink, WI, Mason Regional Airport" (named in honor of Mr. Lyle Wink of FAA's AFS-440 in OKC, and enshrining the names of various other individuals in ersatz waypoint names), these charts also explore the methodology of displaying the FAA's proposed Terminal Arrival Airspace.
    See Also FAA AC 90-94 - Guidelines for Using Global Positioning System Equipment for IFR en Route and Terminal Operations and for Nonprecision Instrument Approaches in the U.S. National Airspace System


    Ingram, Mark ; "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Concepts illustrated for Monett Muni (M58) , Aug. 7, 1996. Acrobat PDF [326Kb]

    6 annotated charts illustrating the "T" Approach and "Stabilized Constant Descent" Bluecoat thread started by Mark Ingram on July 6, 1996 and continuing in August.
    Contents :
  • Monett (M58) GPS-36C VFR Test Approach
  • Monett (M58) GPS-18C VFR Test Approach
  • Monett (M58) Airport and Area Reference Waypoints
  • SIDs & STARs Using 20 Procedural Leg Types (courtesy Universal Avionics)
  • Monett (M58) Northeast and Southeast VFR Test Approach Transitions
  • Monett (M58) Northwest and Southwest VFR Test Approach Transitions
  • 2 pages of notes
    See Also FAA AC 90-94 - GUIDELINES FOR USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM EQUIPMENT FOR IFR EN ROUTE AND TERMINAL OPERATIONS AND FOR NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT APPROACHES IN THE U.S. NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM


  • JAA & Eurocontrol; Summary and Conclusions of the RNAV Symposium , 11-12 March, 1997 Acrobat PDF [128Kb]

    Outline of the Summary and Conclusions slide presentation made at the JAA RNAV Symposium, March 11 and 12, 1997, at Eurocontrol Institute Luxembourg. Includes general rationale and requirements for aircraft to be equipped for Basic Area Navigation (BRNAV), which becomes mandatory in Europe beginning on January 29, 1998.


    Ladkin, Peter B.; Electromagnetic Interference with Aircraft Systems: Why Worry? , July 13, 1997 Acrobat PDF [51Kb]

    There are worries about suspected electromagnetic interference with aircraft systems from electronic devices used by passengers. Some first-hand incident reports from colleagues are included. The phenomenon seems to be hard to pin down -- colleagues explain why. It may be that the current regulatory situation affects reporting and investigation of suspected incidents. Finally, I suggest some ways in which the regulatory environment could be changed to aid investigation.
    See also Peter Ladkin's Compendium of Computer-Related Incidents with Commercial Aircraft.


    Lawson-Smith, Gary; GNSS Spectrum Issues: Protection of Radionavigation Band 1559-1610 MHz , June 25, 1997 Acrobat PDF [31Kb]

    (4 pages)
    This paper was included in the notes from the 6th Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Implementation Team (GIT/6) Meeting in Canberra, Australia, 25 June 97, hosted by AirServices Australia GNSS Program Office.

    The paper was originally presented by Chairman Gary Lawson-Smith, Manager AirServices Australia GNSS Program Office, as part of a progress report on current activities of the ICAO GNSS Panel Working Group B&D meeting in Montreal, 26 May- 6 June.



    Long, Howard A.; Changes to the Present ARINC 424 Rules on Approach Coding , August 1997 Acrobat PDF [11Kb]

    (2 pages) "Recent work by the Flight Safety Foundation has shown that non-precision approaches continue to be a factor in a significant percentage of approach and landing accidents. The need to descend to a MDA and then maintain level flight until in position to continue the descent to landing has been the cause of many accidents in the past."

    "The FSF and the ATA FMS task force have strongly recommended a constant angle descent on all approaches with the missed approach initiated immediately at MDA. This eliminates the risk of the level segment near the ground. This also means that the missed approach is initiated prior to the end of the runway on all non-precision approaches."

    Captain Long's paper stresses the need for "tactical branching" capabilities to be incorporated into FMS software, and the benefits to be derived from such modifications.



    Marinelli, Mario ; Multimedia Systems and Cognitive Aspects in the Training of Airline Pilots , 1994. Acrobat PDF [383Kb] or gzip PostScript [116Kb]

    This report covers Alitalia's experience.
    Contents :
  • Basic Theoretical Training
  • Transition Courses
  • Audiovisuals in Training
  • Video Tapes
  • C.B.T. (Computer Based Training)
  • The Multimedia Interactive systems in connection with Training Cognitive Aspects


  • Moore, Michael ; Differential GPS Demonstration Approach at KTEB , December 29, 1996 Acrobat PDF [134Kb]
    Thanks to Michael Moore, Steve Bergner and others, there is now available on the Bluecoat Reports site a PDF file containing an *uncertified* Differential GPS (DGPS) instrument approach procedure that is currently being tested at the Teterboro, New Jersey, airport (KTEB). This primarily corporate aviation facility is located directly across the Hudson river (west) from the island of Manhattan (New York), and is only a few miles north of the Newark International Airport (KEWR). KTEB lies directly under the approach paths for the south runways at KEWR.

    In IFR weather, when surface winds dictate that instrument approaches be made to the south, KTEB traffic has limited options: Make non-precision VOR/GPS circling or straight-in approaches to runways 19 or 24, or else make *downwind* ILS approaches to runways 1 or 6 - with the latter being in direct opposition to the southerly flow of traffic landing at KEWR. Development of a straight-in Runway 19 approach - precision or otherwise - has until now been precluded by obstructions to the north of the airport.

    This PDF package describes a DGPS test procedure for KTEB Runway 19 that, due to relatively recent changes in obstruction clearance criteria, should eventually be certified for non-public "Special Category I" (SCAT I) precision approach minima. While these documents do get somewhat into the "nuts and bolts" of IAP design, they nonetheless should prove interesting to any number of Bluecoat readers.


    NTSB: Hall, James R.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.;
    Excerpts from the US NTSB & French BEA report :
    NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Aircraft Accident Report, In-Flight Icing Encounter And Loss of Control, Simmons Airlines, d.b.a. American Eagle Flight 4184, Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) Model 72-212, N4O1AM, Roselawn, Indiana, October 31, 1994 , July 9, 1996 Acrobat PDF [122Kb]
    31 pages

    By the United States NTSB:
  • Abstract
  • Executive Summary
  • Conclusions (Findings and Probable Cause)
  • Recommendations

    By the French Bureau Enquetes-Accidents (BEA):
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Executive Summary (General and Probable Cause Statement)
  • Associated Findings and Analysis
  • Conclusion
  • BEA Findings
  • Probable Cause
  • Recommendations

    Keywords: "Roselawn," "uncommanded roll excursion," "unexpected aileron hinge moment reversal," "airworthiness in icing conditions," "aircraft icing certification requirements," "operational requirements for flight into icing conditions," "14 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 25, Appendix C," "ATR 42," "ATR 72," "monitoring of aircraft airworthiness," "flightcrew training for unusual events/attitudes," "supercooled cloud and drizzle/rain drops," "icing in precipitation," "freezing drizzle," "freezing rain"


  • NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Ground Spoiler Activation in Flight/Hard Landing, Valujet Airlines Flight 558, Douglas DC-9-32, N922VV, Nashville, Tennessee, January 7, 1996 , December 11, 1996 Acrobat PDF [27Kb]

    Excerpts of report number PB96-910407, NTSB/AAR-96/07
    The file only contains Conclusions and Recommendations
    Contributing factors in the accident were ValuJet's failure to incorporate cold weather nosegear servicing procedures in its operations and maintenance manuals, the incomplete procedural guidance contained in the ValuJet quick reference handbook, and the flightcrew's inadequate knowledge and understanding of the aircraft systems.


    NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; In-Flight Loss of Propeller Blade, Forced Landing, and Collision with Terrain, Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Inc., Flight 529, Embraer EMB-120RT, N256AS, Carrollton, Georgia, August 21, 1995 , November 26, 1996 Acrobat PDF [30Kb]

    Excerpts of report number PB96-910406, NTSB/AAR-96/06, DCA95MA054
    The file only contains Conclusions and Recommendations
    Contributing to the accident was Hamilton Standard's and the Federal Aviation Administration's failure to require recurrent on-wing ultrasonic inspections for the affected propellers.

    Safety issues in the report focused on manufacturer engineering practices, propeller blade maintenance repair, propeller testing and inspection procedures, the relaying of emergency information by air traffic controllers, crew resource management training, and the design of crash axes carried in aircraft.



    NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Runway departure during attempted takeoff, Tower Air Flight 41, Boeing 747-136, N605FF, JFK, NY, December 20, 1995 , December 2, 1996 Acrobat PDF [32Kb]

    5 pages.
    Recommendation: "Issue a flight standards information bulletin that encourages the use of this accident as a case study for crew resource management training. (A-96-158)"
    Keywords: Runway Departure, Crew Resource Management


    NTSB: Hall, James R.; Francis, Robert T.; Hammerschmidt, John; Goglia, John J.; Black, George W.; Wheels-Up Landing, Continental Airlines Flight 1943, Douglas DC-9 N10556, Houston, Texas, February 19, 1996 , February 11, 1997 Acrobat PDF [28Kb]

    4 pages.
    The following factors contributed to the accident: (1) the flightcrew's failure to properly complete the in-range checklist, which resulted in a lack of hydraulic pressure to lower the landing gear and deploy the flaps; (2) the flightcrew's failure to perform the landing checklist and confirm that the landing gear was extended; (3) the inadequate remedial actions by COA to ensure adherence to standard operating procedures; and (4) the Federal Aviation Administration's inadequate oversight of COA to ensure adherence to standard operating procedures.
    Keywords: Wheels-Up Landing, Crew Resource Management, Checklists


    NTSB; Aircraft Accident Report Summary:
    Descent Below Visual Glidepath and Collision with Terrain, Delta Airlines Flight 554, McDonnell Douglas MD-88, N914DL, LaGuardia Airport, New York, October 19, 1996
    , 1997
    Acrobat PDF [33Kb]

    (6 pages) Executive summary, Findings, Recommendations.

    Contributing to the accident was the lack of instantaneous vertical speed information available to the pilot not flying, and the incomplete guidance available to optometrists, aviation medical examiners, and pilots regarding the prescription of unapproved monovision contact lenses for use by pilots.

    The safety issues in this report focused on the possible hazards of monovision contact lenses, visual illusions encountered during the approach, non-instantaneous vertical speed information, the weather conditions encountered during the approach, the guidance in air carrier's manuals regarding flightcrew member duties, the stabilized approach criteria in air carrier's manuals, emergency evacuation procedures, special airport criteria and designation, and LaGuardia Airport issues/runway light spacing.


    Reynolds, Brian; How Changes Are Actually Handled , Feb. 1996.

    A satirical examination of the Design and Development Process of FMS
    Keywords: humor, management, prototype development, documentation, service bulletin


    Rogers, Ron; Flight Test Results of the Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance Maneuver in Fly-by-Wire (FBW) Transports , March 1, 1999. Acrobat PDF [241Kb]

    19 pages
    Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) is the leading causes of aviation accidents.

    A test program was developed to compare the CFIT maneuver performance capabilities of aircraft with hard versus soft Fly-By-Wire (FBW) flight control systems. To obtain this data, simulated CFIT avoidance maneuvers utilizing a Boeing 777-300 and an Airbus A330-200 were performed. These tests were performed at the Boeing Flight Test Facility in Seattle, Washington and the Airbus Flight Test Facility at Toulouse, France.

    This flight test had a two-fold purpose. The first was to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of a recovery technique that was developed for convention aircraft without regard for the flight envelope protections incorporated in modern FBW aircraft. The second purpose was to develop and/or evaluate CFIT escape maneuvers that utilize the maximum capability of the aircraft afforded by the protections incorporated in their respective FBW flight control systems.

    As a direct result of this flight-test activity, one major US operator of Airbus aircraft (United Airlines) has changed the CFIT escape maneuver for these aircraft.


    Rogers, Ron; Pilot Authority and Aircraft Protections , March 1, 1999. Acrobat PDF [694Kb]

    54 pages
    Modern airliners are equipped with many systems designed to protect the aircraft and its occupants from harm. These systems range from simple warning devices to complex envelope protections. The modern Fly-By-Wire (FBW) flight control system with their flight envelope protection features have the potential of offering significant safety benefits over the protection features of aircraft with conventional flight control systems.

    The addition of various protection systems has tended to improve airline accident rates over the years 1 . Occasionally however, some of the very systems designed to protect the aircraft have contributed to accidents. This opposite effect of the onboard safety systems seems to be the result of inadequate or incomplete design, or the occurrence of unanticipated events. In those cases where the safety system itself was causal to an accident, the flight crew was often unable to counter the effects of the system.

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of aircraft protection schemes and lessons learned, along with design recommendations for aircraft systems.


    Roscoe, Stanley N.; Williges, Beverly H.; Measurement of Transfer of Training , Chapter 16 in S. N. Roscoe. Aviation Psychology. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1980. Acrobat PDF [1185Kb]

    16 pages
    The term transfer of training refers to the degree to which learning one task is facilitated or hindered by the prior or interpolated learning of another. To measure transfer from a flight simulator to an airplane, at least two groups of trainees are required. Speed of learning in an airplane by a group first trained in a simulator is compared with the speed of learning by a control group trained only in the airplane. The various quantitative measures of transfer include "percent transfer," the ratio of the time or trials saved by the experimental group relative to the control group; "transfer effectiveness," the ratio of the time or trials saved in the airplane to the time or trials spent in the simulator; and "incremental transfer effectiveness," the ratio of the incremental saving for each additional increment of time or trials spent in the simulator. Transfer effectiveness is translated to cost effectiveness by factoring in the hourly costs of training in each device.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
    This article is posted with the permission of the authors and of the Iowa State University Press, 2121 South State Avenue, Ames, IA 50014-8300. Copies of "Aviation Psychology" by Stanley Roscoe and of "Flightdeck Performance: The Human Factor" by David O'Hare and Stanley Roscoe can be ordered by calling 1-800-862-6657. Visit the Iowa State University Press Web Site at www.ISUPRESS.EDU.


    Sharkey, Sarah; Johannessen, Rolf; Reliability Performance in GPS Receivers and the Nature of their Failures: Planning to Live with Realistic Failure Rates in Satellite Navigation System Receivers , November 5, 1996 Acrobat PDF [44Kb]

    The National Air Traffic Services (NATS) in London require data on the performance likely to be achieved by the navigation system on board aircraft flying in UK airspace. To that end the performance of three different GPS receiver types (all designed for aviation use) has been examined. This paper details the result of that work. The achieved Mean Time Between Failures (referred to here as "Outages") MTBO is presented along with the nature of some of the failures that have been encountered. The paper concludes with the operational implication of the findings.
    9 pages
    Keywords : GPS, GNSS, FMS
    See also Daly, Kieran; Air Navigation International: UK CAA's GPS study


    Sherman, Paul J.; Aircrews' Evaluations of Flight Deck Automation Training and Use: Measuring and Ameliorating Threats to Safety , The University of Texas Aerospace Crew Research Project, Technical Report 97-2, July 31, 1997 Acrobat PDF [430Kb]

    (62 pages)
    This report is based on Paul Sherman's doctoral dissertation study of the same title.

    The present study examined 1,718 commercial airline pilots' evaluations of the training they received for use of aircraft automation, automated systems on their current aircraft, and their attitudes toward the use and management of automation. Examination of training ratings showed that, overall, roughly one-quarter of pilots felt that initial training did not adequately prepare them for operating their aircraft. Substantial differences in ratings of training efficacy were found across airlines, aircraft types, experience level, and exposure to discretionary opportunities for practice during training. Examination of automated equipment evaluations revealed that ratings of automation usability are related to ratings of training efficacy, implying that any evaluations of automated equipment must take training efficacy into account. Analyses also demonstrated differences across aircraft types on automation usability, quality of troubleshooting and problem solving, and awareness of aircraft energy state; some of these differences seem to be related to differences across aircraft manufacturers and some to differences in automation generation. Finally, analyses of pilots' attitudes toward management of automation showed relationships between the scales and measures of experience, perceptions of company policies regarding automation use, and a measure of respondents' need to avoid uncertain, ambiguous situations. Overall, these results allow identification of some potential threats to safety that reside in the crew-automation interface. They also suggest that crew-automation interaction can be conceptualized from the systems viewpoint - i.e., that crew-automation interaction is determined by multiple factors, including training quality, the automated equipment itself, and the organization's policies and procedures regarding automation use.



    Skaves, Peter; Report on the Boeing 757 / 767 Future Air Navigation System (FANS) 1 Pegasus Navigation Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) , July 28, 1997 Acrobat PDF [195Kb]

    (2 pages)
    This memo provides an update on the guidelines and assumptions on the Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) process for Flight Management Computer Systems (FMCS) installed in Boeing Transport Category Aircraft. Before we address the FHA process, a high level description of the FMCS architecture and evolution is required.


    Slatter, Richard; ICAO Obstacle Clearance Panel (OCP) action on Air Navigation Commission (ANC) instructions , Fax sent on April 3, 1997 Acrobat PDF [34Kb]

    The introduction states, "In direct consequence of the initial recommendations of the controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) Task Force, released in November 1994, the ANC, 9 March 1995, instructed the OCP to consider the design and presentation of all types of non-precision instrument approach procedures, in particular the need: to take into account the stabilized approach technique and to provide a defined vertical profile to be flown; for a minimum 5 per cent gradient (3į glide path); and for a final approach fix. The ANC also stressed the urgent need for GNSS non-precision instrument approach procedures."

    This document contains the recommendations of the OCP/11 meeting held in March of 1997.
    3 pages



    Transport Canada; Report of the RNAV Task Force FMS SID/STAR Working Group , January 1997 Acrobat PDF [538Kb]

    Several paragraphs dedicated to communications procedures and phraseology.
    18 pages, 8 charts


    Ververs, Patricia May; Understanding a Pilot's Tasks , July, 1997 Acrobat PDF [33Kb]

    Summary of an internet survey conducted in May 1997. The Aircraft Landing Information Needs Survey was developed in an effort to understand the various information needs of a commercial or corporate pilot during the final phases of flight. The information items are listed in a table in order of perceived importance.
    11 pages


    Young, Tom; Comstock, Kevin; Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) Charting and Instrument Procedures (CHIPs) position papers , June 27, 1997 Acrobat PDF [168Kb]

    In approximately 1994, NASA researcher Asaf Degani published a Contractor Report (No. 177605) entitled "On the Typography of Flight-Deck Documentation." Cited several times in past Bluecoat discussions, this report examines typographic principles that are not only vitally important for use in aircraft cockpits, but which apply equally to good typography in general.

    Now, thanks to Brad Alberts of FedEx, available on the Bluecoat Reports Web site is a draft copy of the Normal checklist under development for use in the FedEx MD-11 fleet.

    According to Brad, this may be the first instance in which Mr. Degani's recommendations have been directly and consciously applied to the design of an actual checklist for an FAR Part 121 transport aircraft.



    Zambra, Pedro; Principales Volcanes en la Republica Mexicana - Mexican Volcanoes , October 20, 1997

    Mexican volcanoes, altitude, geographical & VOR/DME position, and FIR.



    Maintained by (If you have difficulties downloading a file I can mail it to you):
    Eric Hoffman <hof_at_bluecoat.org>

    Most reports submitted by:
    Mark E. Ingram <markt_at_mickey.mo-net.com>

    Disclaimer regarding this server
    Modified: 24-May-2001 18:10